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Angelica sinensis

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Mar 11.


Chen D, Tang J, Khatibi NH, Zhu M, Li Y, Wang C, Jiang R, Tu L, Wang S.

1 Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China;


Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating stroke subtype accounting for 3-7% of cases each year. Despite its rarity among the various stroke types, SAH is still responsible for roughly 25% of all stroke fatalities. Although various preventative and therapeutic interventions have been explored for potential neuroprotection following SAH, a considerable percentage of patients still experience serious neurologic and/or cognitive impairments as a result of the primary hemorrhage and/or secondary brain damage that occurs. Z-Ligustilide (LIG), the primary lipophilic component of the Chinese traditional medicine Radix Angelica Sinensis, has been shown to reduce ischemic brain injury via anti-apoptotic pathways. Accordingly, in our study, we investigated the neuroprotective potential of LIG following experimental SAH in rats. Rats with SAH induced using the established double hemorrhage model were administered with or without LIG treatment. Mortality, neurobehavioral evaluation, brain water content, blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and vasospasm assessment of the basilar artery were measured on days 3 and 7 after injury. Additional testing was done to evaluate for apoptosis using TUNEL staining as well as immunohistochemistry and western blotting to identify key pro-apoptotic/survival proteins i.e. p53, Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3. The results showed that LIG post-treatment reduced mortality, neurobehavioral deficits, brain edema, BBB permeability, and cerebral vasospasm. Additionally, treatment reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the surrounding brain injury site which accompanied a marked down-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, p53 and cleaved caspase-3. Our data suggest that LIG may be an effective therapeutic modality for SAH victims by altering apoptotic

Fitoterapia. 2011 Feb 25.

Two new α-pinene derivatives from Angelica sinensis and their anticoagulative activities.

Yang NY, Zhou GS, Tang YP, Yan H, Guo S, Liu P, Duan JA, Song BS, He ZQ.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for TCM Formulae Research, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, China.


Two new α-pinene derivatives (1-2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Angelica sinensis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods to be 6β,9-dihydroxy-(+)-α-pinene (1) and 9-hydroxy-(+)-α-pinene-6β-O-D-glucoside (2). In the anticoagulative assay, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak antithrombin activity and strong antiplatelet aggregation activity in vitro.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Feb 17. [Epub ahead of print]

Inhibitory effect of polysaccharides isolated from Angelica sinensis on hepcidin expression.

Wang KP, Zeng F, Liu JY, Guo D, Zhang Y.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan, China.


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Angelica sinensis polysaccharide is an important bioactive component of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating gynecological disorders and anemia.

AIM OF THE STUDY: Previous study indicated that Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) may promote plasma iron levels by suppressing the expression of hepcidin, a negative regulator of body iron metabolism, in the liver. The present study aims to clarify the inhibitory effect of ASP on hepcidin expression as well as the involved mechanisms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: ASP (1g/kg) or vehicle (normal saline) was intragastrically administrated to rats everyday for 14d. Intraperitoneal injections of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO, 2000U/kg) were given to positive control group. Erythropoietin and hepcidin levels in serum at different time points were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of 6 pertinent signal proteins in liver.

RESULTS: ASP significantly reduced hepcidin expression by inhibiting the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5 (STAT3/5) and mothers against decapentaplegic protein 4 (SMAD4) in liver and stimulating the secretion of erythropoietin, which further down-regulated hepcidin by repressing CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), SMAD4, and the phosphorylation process of STAT3/5.

CONCLUSIONS: ASP can suppress the expression of hepcidin in normal rats, and may be used in the treatments of hepcidin-induced diseases.

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010 Nov;35(21):2893-8.

[Screening effective parts of combination of Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (A&A) for its renoprotective effects].[Chinese]

Zhao J, Shang M, Meng L, Rong S, Ma C, Qu L, Cai S, Li X.

Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Key Laboratory of Renal Disease, Ministry of Health of China, Beijing 100034, China.


OBJECTIVE: The decoction of Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (A&A) has shown antifibrotic effects in rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). The aim of this study was to track the effective parts of A&A for its renoprotective effects, according to the improvement of renal function and renal tubulointerstitial damage.

METHOD: A&A was sequentially extracted by using different solvents for three times and eleven different parts were gained. Wistar rats were randomly divided into Sham, UUO and the treatment groups with A&A or each part of A&A. After administration of A&A or its parts for 10 days, the levels of serum creatinin (Scr) and urea were measured. The morphological changes of kidneys were also semi-quantitatively analyzed by HE, Masson stained tissue sections, which including interstitial cell infiltration, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis.

RESULT: The levels of Scr, urea were significantly increased, accompanied with severe renal damage in rats with UUO. As same as A&A, the part I in the first extraction and part IC in the second extraction were all shown to decrease the levels of Scr and urea and the index of renal interstitial damage. However, the following 4 parts extracted from IC in the third extraction were shown no effect on the above indexes.

CONCLUSION: The extract part I and part IC could be considered as the predominant parts of A&A for its renoprotective effects, due to their improvement of renal damage in interstitial nephropathy.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Dec 21;10:79.

Polysaccharides from the root of Angelica sinensis promotes hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesis through the PI3K/AKT pathway.

Liu C, Li J, Meng FY, Liang SX, Deng R, Li CK, Pong NH, Lau CP, Cheng SW, Ye JY, Chen JL, Yang ST, Yan H, Chen S, Chong BH, Yang M.

Department of Hematology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, PR China.


BACKGROUND: Dozens of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulas have been used for promotion of "blood production" for centuries, and we are interested in developing novel thrombopoietic medicines from these TCMs. Our previous studies have demonstrated the hematopoietic effects of DangGui BuXue Tong (DBT), a formula composed of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Radix Astragali in animal and cellular models. As a step further to identify and characterize the active chemical components of DBT, we tested the hematopoietic and particularly, thrombopoietic effects of polysaccharide-enriched fractions from the root of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (APS) in this study.

METHODS: A myelosuppression mouse model was treated with APS (10 mg/kg/day). Peripheral blood cells from APS, thrombopoietin and vehicle-treated samples were then counted at different time-points. Using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assays, we determined the effects of APS on the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and megakaryocytic lineages. Using a megakaryocytic cell line M-07e as model, we analyzed the cellular apoptosis progression with and without APS treatment by Annexin V, Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Caspase 3 assays. Last, the anti-apoptotic effect of APS on cells treated with Ly294002, a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinse inhibitor (PI3K) was also tested.

RESULTS: In animal models, APS significantly enhanced not only the recovery of platelets, other blood cells and their progenitor cells, but also the formation of Colony Forming Unit (CFU). In M-07e cells, we observed the anti-apoptotic effect of APS. Treatment by Ly294002 alone increased the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. However, addition of APS to Ly294002-treated cells significantly reduced the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis.

CONCLUSIONS: APS promotes hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesis in the mouse model. This effect likely resulted from the anti-apoptosis activity of APS and is likely to involve the PI3K/AKT pathway.


J Med Food. 2010 Dec;13(6):1451-9. Epub 2010 Sep 27.

Angelica sinensis modulates immunohematopoietic response and increases survival of mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes.

Queiroz ML, Torello CO, Constantino AT, Ramos AL, Queiroz Jde S.

Department of Pharmacology/Hemocenter, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.


The effects of a dry extract of the roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (ASE) on the growth and differentiation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) in normal and Listeria monocytogenes-infected mice were studied. Myelosuppression concomitant with increased numbers of spleen CFU-GM was observed in infected mice. Prophylactic administration of ASE (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) stimulated marrow myelopoiesis in a dose-dependent manner and reduced spleen colony formation to control values. The dose of 50 mg/kg ASE was the optimal biologically active dose in infected mice, and this dose schedule significantly increased survival of mice infected with a lethal dose of L. monocytogenes, with survival rate up to 30%. Investigation of the production of colony-stimulating factors revealed a dose-dependent increased colony-stimulating activity in the serum of infected mice, with higher response produced by the 50 mg/kg dose. Notably, no effects were observed with the 100 mg/kg dose, compared with infected nontreated controls. Further studies to investigate the production of factors such as inteferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α demonstrated increased levels of both cytokines in mice infected with L. monocytogenes and treated with 50 mg/kg ASE. We propose that ASE indirectly modulates immune activity and probably disengages Listeria-induced suppression of these responses by inducing a higher reserve of myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow in consequence of biologically active cytokine release (colony-stimulating factors, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α).

Int J Biol Macromol. 2010 Nov 1;47(4):546-50. Epub 2010 Aug 5.

Extraction, chemical analysis of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides in ischemia-reperfusion rats.

Zhang S, He B, Ge J, Li H, Luo X, Zhang H, Li Y, Zhai C, Liu P, Liu X, Fei X.

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Eastern District of Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 1630 Dongfang Road, Shanghai 200127, China.


Angelica sinensis polysaccharides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). The major sugar of the polysaccharide was saccharose (18.55%); and the sugar constituted about 83% of the monomer content. Glucose and fructose were found as minor components of the polysaccharides. The FT-IR spectra of A. sinensis polysaccharides are used for determination of their structural features. The FT-IR spectrum of A. sinensis polysaccharides showed bands at 1641 cm(-1), 1415 cm(-1), 1050 cm(-1) and 926 cm(-1) characteristic for the carboxylic group. Absorptions at 2920-2930 cm(-1) are attributed to asymmetrical stretching vibration of CH(2)-group. Medium stretch observed in the range 1650-1400 cm(-1) is assigned to C-C stretching of polysaccharides. Cardioprotective effects of A. sinensis polysaccharides were evaluated by using myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) rats. A. sinensis polysaccharides treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarction size, enhanced CT-1 and antioxidant enzymes activity, downregulated caspase-12 mRNA expression in rats. The study strongly suggests the cardioprotective activity of A. sinensis polysaccharides in limiting ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injury.

Exp Hematol. 2010 Jun;38(6):437-45. Epub 2010 Mar 27.

Hematopoietic effect of water-soluble polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis on mice with acute blood loss.

Liu PJ, Hsieh WT, Huang SH, Liao HF, Chiang BH.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.


OBJECTIVE: To assess the hematopoietic effects of Angelica sinensis and to investigate the possible mechanism related to its hematopoietic activity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crude extract of Angelica sinensis (AS) was separated into two fractions, polysaccharides (ASPS) and small molecular weight compounds. The AS, ASPS, and small molecular weight compounds were incubated with mice spleen cells to obtain conditioned mediums, and then their hematopoietic activities were evaluated by granulocyte macrophage (GM) colony-forming assay in vitro. During in vivo test, we used mice that were bled approximately 0.5 mL by retro-orbital bleeding at day 0 as our anemia model.

RESULTS: We found that polysaccharide (ASPS) was the major component responsible for the hematopoietic effect of Angelica sinensis. The hematopoietic activity was through the stimulation of secretion of interleukin-6 and GM colony-stimulating factor, and the amounts of these hematopoietic growth factors secreted, in general, agreed with the number of GM colony formations. Administration of low-dose ASPS (2.3 mg ASPS/kg body weight per day) could significantly accelerate the recovery of hemoglobin level of the blood-loss mice to its original value, as compared to the control (p < 0.05). Moreover, the colony-forming ability of bone marrow cells that were removed from mice that received ASPS was also markedly increased (p < 0.05) during ex vivo test.

Yakugaku Zasshi. 2009 Jul;129(7):855-9.

Z-ligustilide extracted from Radix Angelica Sinensis decreased platelet aggregation induced by ADP ex vivo and arterio-venous shunt thrombosis in vivo in rats.

Zhang L, Du JR, Wang J, Yu DK, Chen YS, He Y, Wang CY.

Department of Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics, Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery Systems Ministry of Education, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.


Antithrombotic therapy has become an important goal for the treatment of ischemic disorders such as cerebral ischemia. Our recent studies found that Z-ligustilide (LIG), a characterized 3-n-alkylphthalide constituent of Radix Angelica sinensis essential oil, exerted significant neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic damage in several animal models. The present study evaluated the antithrombotic activity of LIG and its effect on platelet aggregation and coagulation time. LIG (10 or 40 mg/kg) was intragastrically administered to rats once daily for 3 days. Our results showed that LIG significantly and dose-dependently reduced arterial thrombus weight in an arteriovenous shunt thrombosis in rats and platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate in rats ex vivo. Meanwhile, LIG at 10 or 40 mg/kg had no significant effect on coagulation time, including activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time, in rats ex vivo. The present study demonstrated for the first time that LIG may exert efficient antithrombotic activity through inhibition of platelet aggregation, without effecting coagulation time of peripheral blood. These data, together with the previously reported neuroprotective effects of LIG on cerebral ischemia, suggest that the antithrombotic activity of LIG may contribute to its potential for the treatment of ischemic diseases, including ischemic stroke.

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2008 Sep;28(9):859-61.

[Therapeutic application and prospect of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis in treating renal microvascular lesions].

[Article in Chinese]

Song JY, Meng LQ, Li XM.

Department of Nephrology, First Hospital of Peking University, Beijing.


It has been known that the renal microvasular lesions could aggravate the progress of glomerular sclerosis and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis in chronic kidney diseases. Modern pharmacological studies indicated that the two traditional Chinese herbs, Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, could improve micorvascular lesions through multiple mechanisms, including increasing local renal blood flow to lessen the hypoxic renal injury, promoting the recovery of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate after ischemia-reperfusion, modulating the imbalance of vaso-activators such as nitric oxide and angiotensin, increasing the expression of vascular epithelial growth factor and inhibiting the release of the intracellular calcium ion and promoting DNA synthesis in endothelial cells to improve the function of endothelial cells. These evidences suggest that Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis may retard the progress of renal diseases through the above-mentioned mechanisms.

Chem Res Toxicol. 2008 Oct;21(10):1939-48. Epub 2008 Sep 23.

Angelica sinensis and its alkylphthalides induce the detoxification enzyme NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 by alkylating Keap1.

Dietz BM, Liu D, Hagos GK, Yao P, Schinkovitz A, Pro SM, Deng S, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research, Chicago, Illinois 60612-7231, USA.


The roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Dang Gui; Apiaceae) have a long history in traditional Chinese medicine as a remedy for women's disorders and are often called "lady's ginseng". Currently, extracts of A. sinensis are commonly included in numerous dietary supplements used for women's health and as antiaging products. In the present study, we examined the potential chemopreventive activity of A. sinensis extracts by measuring the relative ability to induce the detoxification enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). The lipophilic partitions showed strong NQO1 induction with concentrations to double the enzyme activity (CD) of 5.5 +/- 0.7 (petroleum ether) and 3.9 +/- 0.5 microg/mL (chloroform). Fractionation led to the isolation of phenolic esters and alkylphthalides, especially Z-ligustilide, the main lipophilic compound, which showed strong NQO1 inducing properties (CD = 6.9 +/- 1.9 microM). Transcription of many detoxifying enzymes is regulated through the antioxidant response element (ARE) and its transcription factor Nrf2, which is repressed under basal conditions by Keap1. However, exposure to electrophilic inducers that alkylate Keap1 results in higher concentrations of free Nrf2 and ARE activation. The ARE reporter activity was therefore analyzed in HepG2-ARE-C8 cells after incubation with lipophilic extracts of A. sinensis or ligustilide for 24 h. Under these conditions, both the extract and the ligustilide increased ARE-luciferase reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of ligustilide with GSH and subsequent LC-MS-MS analysis revealed that ligustilide as well as oxidized ligustilide species covalently modified GSH. In addition, using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and LC-MS-MS, it was demonstrated that the lipophilic extracts, ligustilide, and monooxygenated ligustilide alkylated important cysteine residues in human Keap1 protein, thus activating Nrf2 and transcription of ARE regulated genes. These observations suggest that A. sinensis dietary supplements standardized to ligustilide have potential as chemopreventive agents through induction of detoxification enzymes.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Oct 30;120(1):36-43. Epub 2008 Jul 30.

Study of the anti-proliferative effects and synergy of phthalides from Angelica sinensis on colon cancer cells.

Kan WL, Cho CH, Rudd JA, Lin G.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Basic Medical Sciences Building, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong S.A.R., China.


Angelica sinensis is a Chinese medicinal herb for treating gynecological and gastrointestinal disorders, and also in conjunction with cancer chemotherapy.

AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects of three main Angelica sinensis phthalides, namely n-butylidenephthalide (BLP), senkyunolide A (SKA) and z-ligustilide (LGT), and their synergy on colon cancer HT-29 cells were investigated. Moreover, the results obtained in both human colon cancer HT-29 and normal colon CCD-18Co cells were compared for the investigation of selectivity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTT and [3H] thymidine incorporation assays were used for the evaluation of cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects, respectively. Interactions among phthalides were determined by median-effect analysis.

RESULTS: All three phthalides dose-dependently decreased cell viability more potently in HT-29 than in CCD-18Co cells. The IC50 values for inhibition of cell proliferation for SKA, LGT and BLP were 54.17+/-5.10, 60.63+/-6.79 and 236.90+/-18.22microM, respectively, in HT-29 cells. Angelica sinensis extract demonstrated significant synergy in inhibiting cell proliferation.

CONCLUSIONS: The three phthalides might have anti-cancer potential, yet the phthalides, in combination with other ingredients in Angelica sinensis extract, display significant synergy leading to a stronger anti-tumor effect.

Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(3):541-54.

Angiogenic effects of the extracts from Chinese herbs: Angelica and Chuanxiong.

Meng H, Guo J, Sun JY, Pei JM, Wang YM, Zhu MZ, Huang C.

Department of Physiology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.


Angelica and ChuanXiong are used to cure ischemic heart disease in China. Previous studies found that these two herbs could increase myocardial blood flow, oxygen-supply and keep myocardial oxygen balance, etc. However, the mechanisms of angiogenic effects of these two herbs are not well-known. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Angelica and ChuanXiong on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in rat myocardial infarction, on endothelial cell proliferation and quantity of vessels on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). In this study, rats were divided randomly into either pre-treatment or acute-treatment group and sacrificed at the end of the treatments. VEGF expression using Western blot analysis was significantly increased in the groups pre-treated with ChuanXiong and Angelica when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). There was significant increase in VEGF expression in the rats treated acutely with Angelica (p < 0.05). In the contrary, the rats treated with ChuanXiong showed a decrease in VEGF expression when compared to the acute-treatment control group (p < 0.05). Similar results were observed in immunohistochemistry of VEGF expression in the myocardia. Our study also demonstrated that these two herbs significantly enhanced endothelial cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and revascularity in CAM (p < 0.05). The data showed that Angelica and ChuanXiong could affect VEGF expression in rat myocardial infarction, promote endothelial cell proliferation and stimulate quantity of vessels on CAM model. The results suggest that Angelica and ChuanXiong have angiogenic effects, and may provide some mechanisms for the treatment of myocardial infarction and peripheral ischemia.

Planta Med. 2008 Mar;74(4):392-5.

A Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis induces the expression of erythropoietin in cultured Hep3B cells.

Gao QT, Cheung JK, Choi RC, Cheung AW, Li J, Jiang ZY, Duan R, Zhao KJ, Ding AW, Dong TT, Tsim KW.

Department of Biology and Center for Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong, P. R. China.


Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese medicinal decoction used commonly for treating women's ailments, contains Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS). According to Chinese medicinal theory, this decoction is to nourish the blood function; this, however, has not been demonstrated on the molecular level. In order to reveal the hematopoietic effect of this decoction, DBT was applied to cultured Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The treatment of DBT induced mRNA expression of erythropoietin (EPO) in a dose-dependent manner and peaked at approximately 2.5-fold induction. The secreted EPO in cultured Hep3B cells was quantified by ELISA: the treatment of DBT potentiated the effect of hypoxia-induced EPO expression in the cultured cells. In addition, the DBT-induced EPO expression could be abolished by pre-treatment with U0126, a mitogen-activated kinase inhibitor. The current results verified the hematopoietic function of this ancient herbal decoction.

Phytomedicine. 2008 Sep;15(9):710-21. Epub 2008 Apr 29.

Protective effects of Angelica sinensis extract on amyloid beta-peptide-induced neurotoxicity.

Huang SH, Lin CM, Chiang BH.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.


The protective effects of alcohol extract from the root of Angelica sinensis (AS) on beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta)-induced toxicity and the mechanism of these effects were investigated. Abeta is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; it decreased viability of Neuro 2A cells in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) of 14.9 microM. AS extract resulted in dose-dependent anti-Abeta toxicity according to MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis revealed a significant production of hydrogen peroxide, decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS value) in the Abeta-treated Neuro 2A cells. The Abeta-treated cells also showed a significant decline in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim) and increase in the mitochondrial volume, and portions of the cytoplasm were sequestered by a membrane-bound vacuole. The malfunctions of Neuro 2A cells caused by Abeta were attenuated using AS extract. The AS extract protected cell viability against Abeta-induced oxidative damage (ROS, TBARS, and GSH contents) and rescued the DeltaPsim levels in a dose-dependent manner: the dosages of 25, 50, 100, and 200 microg/ml recovered 77%, 87%, 102%, and 105% of DeltaPsim, respectively. AS extract also recovered the enlarged mitochondria mass with dosages from 25 to 200 microg/ml. The results of this study demonstrated that AS extract possessed the activity to prevent the neurotoxicity induced by Abeta-associated oxidative stress, implying that AS has a potential role in the prevention of Alzheimer's diseases.

Chin J Integr Med. 2007 Dec;13(4):297-300.

Effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide-iron complex on iron deficiency anemia in rats.

Wang PP, Zhang Y, Dai LQ, Wang KP.

Pharmaceutical Preparation Section of Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide-iron complex (APIC) on rats with iron deficiency anemia (IDA).

METHODS: The IDA rat model was established by adopting low-iron forage with a small amount of regular bloodletting. The rats were randomly divided into a model group, three AIPC groups (high, middle, and low dosage), an Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) group, a mixture group (ASP+FeCl(3)) and a positive control group (Niferex). Changes in hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and iron content of whole blood were observed.

RESULTS: There was a significant difference before and after administration in all treated groups and all indices were restored to near-normal levels in the APIC groups and the positive control group. There was a significant difference among the changes of the indices in all the APIC groups and those of the model group but not between those of the APIC groups and the positive control group. However, the recovery of the indices in the APIC groups was superior to that in the positive control group.

CONCLUSION: APIC not only has a superior therapeutic effect on IDA, but also has the effect of the ASP on supplementing blood and activating blood circulation. Hence, it may be used as a new iron-supplementing agent with a double therapeutic efficacy on blood supplementation for the treatment of IDA.

J Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Sep 30;40(5):636-43.

Macrophage activation by an acidic polysaccharide isolated from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.

Yang X, Zhao Y, Wang H, Mei Q.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Medicinal Plant Resource and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xioan 710062, China.


This study was designed to identify and characterize the mechanism of macrophage activation by AAP, an acidic polysaccharide fraction isolated from the roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. As a result, AAP significantly enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production and cellular lysosomal enzyme activity in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, L-NAME, a specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), effectively suppressed AAP-induced NO generation in macrophages, indicating that AAP stimulated macrophages to produce NO through the induction of iNOS gene expression and the result was further confirmed by the experiment of the increase of AAPinduced iNOS transcription in a dose-dependent manner. To further investigate, AAP was shown to strongly augment toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression and the pretreatment of macrophages with anti-TLR4 antibody significantly blocked AAP-induced NO release and the increase of iNOS activity, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion.