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Avena sativa

Créditos da ilustração: Otto Wilhelm Thome

Este arquivo apresenta uma reunião de estudos sobre a planta, para facilitar suas pesquisas. À medida do possível, iremos acrescentar outros. Conteúdo voltado para profissionais da área médica.


Int J Clin Pharmacol Biopharm. 1976 Oct;14(3):214-6.

Pharmacotherapy with avena sativa - a double blind study.

Schmidt K, Geckeler K.

Hundred non-hospitalized smokers with an average consumption of 20 cigarettes per day were treated with an alcoholic extract of Avena sativa for disaccustoming. The study was double blind. By using query-sheets personal contact was excluded. The first result was a placebo-effect of 35% for disaccustoming of smokers and no statistically significant effect of the extract of Avena sativa. The second result was a difference of disaccustoming between light and heavy smokers. It was shown, that the rate of disaccustoming was higher for light smokers than for smokers with a high consumption of cigarettes.


FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003 Jan 21;35(1):67-75.

Beta-glucan, extracted from oat, enhances disease resistance against

bacterial and parasitic infections.

Yun CH, Estrada A, Van Kessel A, Park BC, Laarveld B.


Animal Biotechnology Centre, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, 51 Campus Drive, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A8.


The effect of beta-glucan, extracted from oats, on the enhancement of resistance to infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Eimeria vermiformis was studied in mice. In vitro study using macrophages isolated from the peritoneal cavity showed that beta-glucan treatment significantly enhanced phagocytic activity. In vivo study further demonstrated that beta-glucan treatment induced a significant (P<0.05) protection against the challenge with 5 x 10(8) of S. aureus in mice.

Fecal oocyst shedding in the C57BL/6 mice infected with E. vermiformis was diminished by beta-glucan treatment by 39.6% in intraperitoneal and 28.5% in intragastric group compared to non-treated control. Patency period was shorter and antigen (sporozoites and merozoites) specific

antibodies were significantly (P<0.05-0.01) higher in beta-glucan-treated group compared to non-treated control group. There were an increasing number of splenic IFN-gamma-secreting cells in

glucan-treated group via intraperitoneal route, which might be responsible for the enhancement of the disease resistance. Glucan treatment was able to effectively change the lymphocytes population (Thy 1.2(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells) in the mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches in mice infected with E. vermiformis. In conclusion, the oral or parenteral oat beta-glucan treatment enhanced the resistance to S. aureus or E. vermiformis infection in the mice.


Tohoku J Exp Med. 1976 Jun;119(2):115-22.

Extraction and purification of a substance with luteinizing hormone releasing activity from the leaves of Avena sativa.

Fukushima M, Watanabe S, Kushima K.

Attempts were made to purify the LH-releasing substance extracted from the leaves of Avena sativa by means of two-step chromatographic procedures using a weakly acidic ion-exchange resin (CG-50,type II) and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 (coarse) with successful results. For preliminary

fractionation of such starting materials as dried leaves, fresh leaves, and acetone-extracted powder(crude extracts), 5% acetate-buffered active carbon proved to be more effective than starch zone electrophoresis. From its behavior on chromatography with weakly acidic ion-exchange

resins as well as Sephadex gel filtration, the active fraction extracted from the leaves of Avena saliva was assumed to be different from the LH-RH present in the hypothalamus. This partially purified material, however, was demonstrated to have an LH-releasing activity by the ovarian ascorbic acid depletion method using Wistar-Imamichi strain rats. Evidence was presented that its site of action is in the adenohypophysis.

Folia Med (Plovdiv). 1998;40(3B Suppl 3):110-3.

Central effects of AC-1 and TFG-1.

Balabanov P, Karamanos AP.

Department of Pharmacology and Drug Toxicology, Higher Medical

Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.


AC-1 and TFG-1 are both herb extracts from Avena Sativa and Trigonella Foenum Graecum respectively. In folk medicine, Trigonella Foenum Graecum

is used as appetiser and general tonic as well as for pellagra treatment and for treatment of pulmonary disorders. Avena Sativa is another commonly used appetiser and tonic. In our study we examined the influence of AC-1 and TFG-1 on some of the major functions of the central nervous system. We divided the test animals in three groups and after administering the herb extracts we monitored different pharmacological parameters-Phenamine toxicity and stereotypy, Hexobarbital sleep, elementary conditioned reflexes and antiseizure activity.

J Pharm Pharmacol. 1975 Feb;27(2):92-8.

The pharmacology of Avena sativa.

Connor J, Connor T, Marshall PB, Reid A, Turnbull MJ.


The pharmacology of Avena sativa has been investigated in laboratory animals following a report that tincture of Avena sativa reduced the craving for cigarettes in man. The tincture, evaporated to dryness, re-constituted in an equal volume of water and administered by stomach tube or intraperitoneal injection, antagonized the antinociceptive effect of morphine in two separate test (hot-plate and tail flick). Compared with animals made depedent on morphine alone, mice pretreated with repeated injections of morphine plus extract passed a smaller number of stools and tended to jump less after administration of nalorphine. The pressor response to intravenously administered nicotine in urethane-anaesthetized rats was also antagonized by prior administration of Avena sativa. However, the aqueous extract prepared from the tincture did not affect the seizure threshold to bemegride or nicotine or the sleeping time induced by barbitone sodium.


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(Avena Sativa)

Quick Info: "Avena sativa is an extract from wild oats straw, and a rather recent entry to the field of aphrodisiacs. While oats have a long reputation of being the most energizing grain, the alleged sexual effects have not commonly been recognized in previous centuries. Avena sativa is said to free up bound testosterone in both men an women. If this were indeed the case, a prosexual effect would be obvious. Most positive effects of testosterone, including sex drive, are attributed to free testosterone, while bound testosterone is mainly a subject of study when enlarged prostates are the primary concern.


(Avena sativa)

The oat plant is not very glamorous, but when it comes to health and nutrition, it is a powerful workhorse. Oats come to us by way of Scotland, but it is not known when they were first introduced there. There are about 25 varieties, but the one used in herbal medicine is Avena sativa. (1) Most people know the mature seed of the plant is used as a cereal grain, but the whole plant, with exception of the roots, has an important place in herbal medicine.

Before they mature, for about 2 weeks in late August, the seeds are actually in a liquid or “milky” stage. This is the best time to collect oats for tincturing to be used as a nervine or nerve tonic because they have the highest amounts of nutrients and active principles. Once the oat seeds are mature, in late summer or early fall, they can be harvested and rolled or ground into oatmeal. If they are left unprocessed, they are called groats. (1) After harvesting the seeds, the straw from the plant can be cut up and used also in teas. The ground husks surrounding the seeds becomes oat bran. (2)

Oats are warming, moist and sweet. They have saponins, flavonoids, minerals, alkaloids, steroidal compounds, vitamins B1, B2, D, E, carotene, gluten, starch and fat. All of these make oats an excellent nerve tonic to recover from nervous exhaustion due to stress, depression, lethargy, or as a preventative in difficult times to cope better. (2,3,4) Oatmeal is also useful externally to relieve itching from rashes such as chicken pox, eczema, cold sores, and shingles. (2,5) Oat bran is used to reduce blood cholesterol levels and is a source of fiber. (2) Oat straw is used both as a nerve tonic and because of its mineral content, it is often used in teas to promote bone health.

Eating oats and oat bran often is a positive direction to take in improving the diet. Oats can be used in baking, as a hot cereal, and as a soup thickener. (5) Oat bran can be sprinkled in salads, soups, and other foods to add fiber. Colloidal oatmeal baths may be purchased at most pharmacies or can be made by grinding oatmeal in a food processor or coffee grinder. Cooked, warm or lukewarm oatmeal can be used in a poultice over rashes, eczema, shingles and cold sores. Two to three ml (about 1/2 teaspoonful) of milky oats tincture can be mixed in hot water or tea and drunk up to 3 times a day for the nerves. (2) For people with celiac’s disease, let the tincture settle and pour off only the clear liquid to avoid any gluten. (2) Oat straw decoction (simmered tea) may be used instead.

Mother Nature knew what she was doing when she gave oats to us. They are full of what we need to make it through our stressful lives and the cold, wet weather of winter. They have vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber, and are available in abundance. Almost everyone can benefit by adding oats to their diet.


1. Grieve, M., A Modern Herbal, Dover Publications, New York, 1971, Vol. II, p. 597

2. Ody, P., The Complete Medicinal Herbal, Dorling Kindersley, New York, 1993, p.40

3. McIntyre, A., The Complete Woman's Herbal, Henry Holt Co., New York, 1995, p.52

4. Naturopathic Handbook of Herbal Formulas, Herbal Research Publications, Ayer, 4th ed., 1996, p. 114

5. Berk, S. A., The Naturalist's Herb Guide, Black Dog & Leventhal, New York, 1996, p. 170


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Avena sativa

Avena Sativa (other common names Avena, Common Oat) is the biological name for the what we commonly know as oats. This annual grass is usually 1,2 m tall with spikelets that carry 2 flowers. In temperate and sub-tropical countries avena sativa is grown as fodder and is cultivated as a summer crop. For human consumption oats are grown as the grains for cereals and medical preparations.


Avena sativa favors a variety of soils, from sandy and loamy to clay. The plant usually requires well-drained soil with acid nutrition. As a rule, oats cannot grow in the shade, but tolerate drought. The plant is also cultivated in beds.


Parts Used

Seeds and whole plant are used for the variety of food and medical preparations. Grain is the source for oatmeal and cereals.


Oats contain a big variety of chemical compounds beneficial for human’s health - saponins, flavonoids, many minerals, alkaloids, steroidal compounds, vitamins B1, B2, D, E, carotene, wheat protein (gluten), starch, and fat. The body-building nutritional compounds are represented in wide range in this plant. They include silicon, manganese, zinc, and calcium. The testosterone activity of avena sativa provides it with the sexual-enhancing features. Anticholesterolemic, antispasmodic, cardiac, diuretic, emollient, nervine, sedative and nutritive properties make oats a widely popular ngredient in herbal formulas. Plant’s influence upon the brain and nutritive functions of the body provide general improvement of the body’s nervous system and nutrition.

Health benefits

Although oats are mainly used as a food, oat grain and preparations made out of it also have medicinal properties. In general, avena sativa preparations are used to restore vigour after debilitating illnesses, help lower cholesterol levels in the blood and also increase stamina.

The seed of the plant contains the antitumor compound b-sitosterol and so has been used as a folk remedy for tumours. Used as a tincture, avena sativa is a powerful uterine and nervine tonic. It is used for treatment of a wide range of nervous disorders, including opium addiction treatment. The herbal preparations from the plant are beneficial when used to boost fertility, improve sexual performance, promote energy, and strengthen the heart. Avena sativa enhances digestion, reduces detoxification process and provides support for urinary organs. Applied topically, herbal remedies work as eczema treatment and other skin disorders.


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Avena. Avena sativa.

As a nerve stimulant and permanent tonic, this valuable agent was comparatively unknown, when the first edition was issued. The writer took the responsibility of introducing it here through the confidence acquired by observing its prompt and satisfactory action during an experience of twenty years in the treatment of nervous diseases. There are many well-known and lauded agents that are hardly to be compared with this for prompt action upon the nervous system.


Administration—Avena Sativa should always be given in appreciable doses. Fifteen drops, three or four times daily, well diluted, will usually meet the case. It may be given in doses of from five to sixty drops in rare instances. It should, however, never be given in larger quantities than twenty minims unless the patient is thoroughly accustomed to the remedy, and has found the usual dose insufficient. Otherwise there is danger of obtaining the physiological effect of the drug, which is announced by pain at the base of the brain. When this symptom makes its appearance the medicine should be discontinued for a day or two, and then given in reduced doses.


If administered in hot water during the day, its action is much quicker, and in cold water at night on retiring it has a more extended influence. When given in hot water, its action at times, is almost instantaneous.


Physiological Action—Its selective influence is directly upon the brain and upon the nutritive functions of the organism, increasing nerve force and improving the nutrition of the entire system. The influence of a single full dose is promptly felt, similar to the influence of any active stimulant, but more permanent. It is a stimulant, sedative and direct nutritive tonic, apparently restoring the wasted elements of nerve force.


Specific Symptomatology—The following indications for the use of this remedy are given by King: Spasmodic and nervous disorders, with exhaustion; the nervous debility of convalescence, cardiac weakness, from nervous exhaustion; spermatorrhea, with the nervous erythism of debility. In general neurasthenia it promptly relieves the almost unbearable occipital headache, so constant, and evidenced by an enormous waste of the phosphates in the urine, common with nervous exhaustion.


It is a remedy of great utility in loss of nerve power and in muscular feebleness from lack of nerve force.


In the overworked conditions of brain workers-ministers, physicians or lawyers—in the general prostration from great anxiety and worry, it acts in the same lines as phosphorus and in many cases fully as satisfactorily.


With these, there is so-called nervous dyspepsia, atonicity, in fact, of the entire gastrointestinal tract. There is heart feebleness with some irregularity; there is cool skin and cool or cold extremities: there is melancholia, irritability, peevishness, vagaries of thought, morbid desires and fancies, usually accompanied with autotoxemia which demands persistent elimination. With these avena is directly indicated.


In sexual neurasthenia it is the remedy par excellence, as it has a selective influence upon the nerve structure of the genito-urinary apparatus.


Therapy—It will be found directly serviceable in paralysis and wasting disease of the aged, in nerve tremors, and especially in chorea and in paralysis agitans. It has been beneficial in epilepsy.


In the convalescence of prostrating disease, and during the asthenic or later stages of inflammatory and exanthematous disease and diphtheria, it is as important as quinine and strychnia, and certainly as reliable.


The local paralysis of diphtheria, has no better antidote, and if given in hot infusion during the course of acute exanthematous disease, it quickly determines the eruption to the surface and promotes convalescence.


Because of its selective action upon the nervous structure which supplies the reproductive organs, it will be found to allay nervous excitement, nervous palpitation of the heart, insomnia and mental weakness, or failure and general debility caused by masturbation, over sexual indulgence, or onanism. It is a sovereign remedy in impotency. This writer has had better satisfaction in the use of this agent in the temporary impotence of young newly married men, than from any other single remedy or combination of remedies. If there be prostatic or other local irritation, a combination of this agent with saw palmetto will cover the field.


In uterine or ovarian disorders with hysterical manifestations it is of much service. The nervous headaches of the menstrual epoch, especially those accompanied with burning on the top of the head, and sick headaches apparently from disordered stomach at this time, or in fact sick headache at any time if accompanied with nervous weakness, are all promptly benefited by Avena Sativa, provided gastric acidity is neutralized. In atonic amenorrhea with great feebleness, it is valuable. In neuralgic and congestive dysmenorrhea, with slow and imperfect circulation and cold skin and extremities, it is an excellent remedy.


Dr. Simmons of Toledo, Ohio, in the Gleaner, mentioned the use of avena in acute coryza. His method resulted in a manner highly satisfactory in every case. Those who are subject to colds in the head, he furnishes with a small vial of specific avena. With the first indication he has them take twenty drops of hot water. This may be repeated or increased to thirty or forty drops in two hours, but the third dose is usually sufficient to remove every evidence of coryza if present, and to prevent its occurence. The first evidences of its action may appear in five minutes. If twenty drops do not produce a feeling of warmth in the face and flushing of the skin, the next dose is increased.


This agent exercises a restorative power in overcoming the habits of alcohol, tobacco, morphine, and opium. It will enhance the value of other prescribed agents.


In the treatment of the morphine habit, our subsequent experience has not confirmed our early anticipations, and yet it is a useful addition to the treatment. It should be used in conjunction with capsicum, strychnine, xanthoxylum, or hyoscyamine hydrochlorate, and sustained in its action by persistent concentrated nutrition.


In conjunction with cactus, or apocynum, as these remedies are indicated, it will be found of much service in the treatment of weak heart, and the resulting complications. Webster lays much stress upon its action as a remedy to prevent the recurrence of cardiac rheumatism. This influence would be facilitated by combination with specific alteratives, and remedies that will facilitate the elimination of uric acid, without depressing the action of the heart.


The persistent use of this remedy, especially if conjoined with capsicum or minute doses of strychnine, will be found of great assistance in certain cases of paralysis. Its nerve restorative and persistently tonic properties are exercised fully here.


In a case of cerebral hemorrhage, from which recovery was not to be expected, Dr. French used ergot and avena with bromide as an occasional sedative, with satisfactory results. He says: "I also give avena for the symptoms of nervous breakdown and exhaustion, regardless of the name of the special disease from which they may be suffering. Some patients claim to realize almost instantaneous effects on taking it while others are less easily affected. In all well-known cases selected for the indications of paralysis and deficiency of nerve power, it seems to me to be good."


Co-operatives—It works in harmony with strychnine in its stimulating influence, but is more permanent in its effect. It exercises an influence Similar to quinine after prostrating fevers and is similar to coca and phosphorus in its restorative powers. Zanthoxylum will enhance its general stimulant influence, and it may be combined with cimicifuga and scutellaria and gelsemium in chorea. It is antagonized by nerve depressants and nerve sedatives which exercise no stimulant or restorative influence.


There is no danger of forming the habit of taking the drug, as it can be suddenly abandoned at any time without evil consequences, even when given in large quantities.